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Shock and disbelief. That’s what ripped through the tobacco harm reduction community when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ordered Juul e-cigarettes off the market on June 23. The reason? After examining $100 million worth of scientific submissions, and with certain knowledge that millions of people have used Juul vapes for years—mostly to replace deadly cigarettes—with no significant demonstrated adverse health effects, the agency claimed, “there is insufficient evidence to assess the potential toxicological risks of using JUUL products” and that they are not “appropriate for the protection of public health.”